Former Village of Ucanha Couto Salzedas 

Located in: Viseu, Tarouca, Ucanha 

The town develops between 450 and 550m. altitude, deployed along the slope which descends towards the river Varosa (or Barosa). The area of ​​the valley, framed by wooded hills of the Serra de Santa Helena, presents significant landscape value. The watercourse is bordered by willows, alders and a few mills. Between the bridge and new bridge Ucanha there is a Insua, used as a river beach. The valley, wide open, it provides the use of corn fields and marshes, as well as vineyards and olive groves, the latter occupying a higher level. The set built to reach the opposite bank, now belonging to the parish of Gouviães. Within the limits of the cluster, and in particular along the main road to cross roads, there is the impact of buildings scattered dissenters. Situated about 5 km Tarouca, Ucanha marks the entrance to the former Monastery of Salzedas Couto.Still on the edge of the village is preserved ruins of the abbey's Old Salzedas. 
Being an urban village with a linear structured training for a single path, which consists of the matrix element fortified bridge. Called Main Street, Straight Street, or simply street, because it is the only, has an orientation E. / O, perpendicular to the river and the contour lines, developing an extension of approximately 500 m. Its width varies between 4 and 10 m, depending on the number of inflections produced by the difficult adjustment to the topographic base, imposing a steep slope that reaches about 75 m head.Sectioned transversely by two roads, is composed of three sections, whose sequence may have a chronological sense. The designation of each reveals its topographical situation and constructive element of reference. The first section is named Fund Street or Tower Street, taking as its starting point the bridge and its tower, from which it outlines a broad, where they erected the hospital or hostel. The main road branches off towards the Mother Church, which is guarded by walled churchyard and the cemetery, especially with the bell tower in the cityscape. The second section, which might be called Middle Street, is equivalent to the Pillory Street or Street of Our Lady of Help. This is an area where space is more dense built, two emerging and their incipient parallel bars, according to the polarized double enlargement of street produce and the Largo do Pelourinho Largo da Senhora da Ajuda. The first result of widening the road on the N., shows the pillory near the center, next to Town Hall and Jail, which defines the corner. In its immediate contiguity opens Largo da Ajuda, formed by widening the road to the opposite side. Your space is occupied by the isolated volume of the chapel, whose facade opens onto the street in a diagonal plane. The third section, the Down the Street or Rue de Santo Antonio, built mass reveals a more rarefied, and the end of Street / Village marked by the Chapel of St. Anthony of tiny dimensions. Throughout the village it was observed that the street is interrupted by lanes, small openings reducible to Quelhas alleys and access to farmland. The dividing walls of properties as well as granite channels of irrigation systems, prolong visually compartmentalize these lines and its surroundings. The walls of granite masonry also ensure the containment of the road alignment, which built the space does not confirm, before denouncing the impossibility of a clear definition of blocks. A single family home, having as basis the type of cottage Beira, characterized in general terms the built space. Almost always presenting two floors, it is confirmed the booking to the ground floor shops, reflecting an agricultural use hidden in the residential function, while the second floor, which houses the kitchen, is intended to housing. They identify houses with external staircase and, more commonly, houses with internal staircase. Stand out in particular the wooden balconies reflecting some specific constructive formal and chromatic (use of red, blue and green) that contribute to blur the sobriety of the elevations. The composition is more or less regular basis, using a rule opening the ground floor doors and windows or balconies upstairs.The openings, headroom rectum, have no frames, which appears only in the wealthiest homes, as in the one house emblazoned (Tower Street). It is noted a significant number of openings and more punctually bevelled cove moldings and arched conopial. In the aftermath of frontage note the frequent use of rhythmic arrows to counterfeit, simulating a cornice. Constitute constructive details that enrich the image of the built environment, such as the punctual presence of dormers and chimneys truncated pyramid. 
Construction Time: Century 13 / 15 
Chronology: 1150, about - the foundation of the Monastery of Salzedo, following Argeriz on the spot now called Old Abbey, at the initiative of D. Teresa Afonso, widow of Egas Moniz, 1152 - the royal donation of Algeria Couto (then called Salzedas) D. Teresa Afonso; 1164 - resignation of the Bishop of Lamego all episcopal rights over Couto; likely begin construction of the new monastery; 1225 - consecration of the Church of the Monastery of Salzedas; century. 12 - likely the bridge, the entrance to the Cistercian Couto, calling itself the village Vila da Ponte, after it generalizes the toponómino Cucanha and the growth of this nucleus is related to tax operating the bridge and the monastic aforamentos successively renewed; 1315 - royal document determining the obligation to pass on the bridge and pay the appropriate toll, 1324 - Regal attempt to exempt residents of King Castro paying toll, unsuccessful attempts due to opposition from the Monastery of Salzedas, 1364 - letter D. Peter I the warren river on both banks of the monastery for exclusive fishing (dam site of the Friars), 1465 - rebuilding of the bridge and its tower on the initiative of D. Fernando, Abbot of Salzedas (documented by title), it is likely that the arch existed in order to prevent the free passage of the bridge, it is possible that the tower was intended to deposit products and the official quarters Abbey (FERNANDES, 1995 ) 1472 - foundation of a hospital for the poor, raised by the said abbot (REIS, 1612), was found in a house near the tower (Moreira, 1924), perhaps the building that retains traces of a doorway with rosettes; century. 14 / 15 - presence of three inns; 1504 - granting of the charter letter Couto Salzedas: to refer to the place as head of Cucanha Couto, and mentions the Board cease the levying of tolls on the bridge; 1527 - the village had 111 residents; century. 17, 2nd half - the institution of the parish as curate of the Monastery of Salzedas; 1673 - likely construction of the pillory (MALAFAIA, 1997), 1708 - had 150 neighbors; 1721 - royal decree authorizing the clerk of the Board of Ucanha to accumulate the office of judge executor of the Monastery, 1729 - completion of the Church; century. 18 - bridge repair documented above, the presence of significant numbers of teachers of jewels, that correlated to the restoration works of the Monastery of Salzedas, 1836 - termination of municipal status, becoming a member of the county Mondim Beira; demolition of the pillory Struggles over the Liberals; 1898 - integration of the county Tarouca; century. 19 - manufacture of tile in Ucanha; from 1960 to 1151 inhabitants, from 1970 to 435 inhabitants, 1981 to 542 inhabitants, 1991 to 499 inhabitants with a density of 94 inhabitants per km2, despite the low demographic dynamics; distribution of the workforce: 57.3 % in the primary, secondary 26.3% and 16.4% in the tertiary; illiteracy rate: 17.4%; aging resident population and with limited financial resources (15% of individuals over 65 years and 33.4 % under 14 years). 
Type: City organized by a single linear pathway developed from a fortified bridge, the generating element of built space. Street segmented into three sections: the Fund, the Middle and Top Street, equivalent to the Rua da Torre, Pillory Street / Lady Help and Rua de Santo António, place names that reflect the relative position of each of the sections and the striking elements the route. Extending off the street outlines a broad near the Tower, the Church, the Chapel Aid and Pelourinho. Increased building density around the Largo do Pelourinho. Incipient formation of lanes, alleys and restricted to some Quelhas access to land, forming gaps in perspective about the surroundings.Cityscape made up of the staggering volume. Linearity road secured by walls. Space composed of houses built with two floors and unifamilares base building freestanding masonry walls of granite. Typological groups identified: forming external staircase house with porch and rarely simple counter, such as the Town Hall; house with internal staircase in wood, with one or two hauls, generally perpendicular to the facade wall and attached to the master; home with wooden balcony occupying the whole width of the lot, forming porch and the upper floor paneling coated in plaster, zinc plate (smooth or wavy), roofing slate tile or reversed. Typological variants of the balcony: balcony to face, semi-designed console or in the console, or lined with parapet railings, arched balconies, glazed and closed, the latter poorly represented variants. Lintel spans of straight or beveled, punctually at half-cane or arc conopial. Use arrows topped with counterfeit eaves. The urban structure and typology of the buildings reveals affinities with the Bridge District in Lamego. 
Personal Characteristics: Exceptionality fortified bridge, forming a monumental entrance to the Couto Salzedas. The fact that people call to Causeway Street reflects the persistence of the initial function. Steeply sloping street. Eccentric implantation of the Church. Contiguity between the squares of Pelourinho and Help. Urban environment dependent on the construction details, particularly the wooden balconies. Hometown Leite de Vasconcelos. 
Technical Data: freestanding masonry walls of granite mortared or dry joint; partition of land covered with plaster, sheet zinc, slate or tile roofs, crashing on floors with wood framework, covering of roofs with ceramic tile. 
Materials: Granite, wood, iron, cement, zinc sheet, slate, tile, straw, and straw-brimmed, Marseilles. 
Intervention Held J. Leite de Vasconcelos: 1935 - reconstruction of Pelourinho; DGEMN: 1936 / 1937 / 1938 / 1939 / 1965 / 1969 / 1975 / 1977 / 1978 / 1988 / 1989 / 1990 / 1999 - works conservation, restoration, consolidation and improvement of the bridge and tower. Parochial Church: 1990 / 1996 - renovation of the Parish Church 1999 - beginning of reconstruction of the building next to the house Leite de Vasconcelos (Parish Center) CMT: 1991 - The opening of the variant to Gouviães and construction of new bridge , involving the demolition of some buildings that closed the main road, 1998 - construction of public toilets. 
Comments: The place name derives from Ucanha Cucanha, as used by the century. 17, since it is a word that can describe hovel or place of amusement. The area of ​​the Couto Salzedas included the present parishes of Trusses, New Farm, Salzedas, Ucanha and Vila Cha. Agriculture is the dominant economic activity (cereals, potatoes, fruit trees, olive trees, vines, alder). In 1999 the application was approved the Program of Rehabilitation of Degraded Urban Areas (Praud) for establishment of GTL. 


Source: (www.monumentos.pt (DGEMN))